Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Cassava croaker : fisheries, gamefish
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Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Valenciennes, 1833)

Cassava croaker
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Pseudotolithus senegalensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pseudotolithus senegalensis
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) 鱸形目 (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers) 石首魚科 (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

海洋 居于水底的; 深度上下限 0 - 70 m (Ref. 3593). 熱帶; 27°N - 22°S

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: west coast of Africa, from Morocco to Angola, but rare north of Senegal (Ref. 57396). Also reported from Namibia (Ref. 3593).
東大西洋: 外海的摩洛哥到那米比亞。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 35.0, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 114 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3593); 最大体重: 12.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 28-33; 臀棘 2; 臀鳍软条: 7. Diagnosis: large fish, elongate and compressed (Ref. 57396). Eyes small (Ref. 57396, 81656), 5.7-6.4 times in HL, but this character is difficult to use for identification because of allometry (Ref. 81656). Snout short; mouth large and oblique; lower jaw prominent; both jaws with bands of villiform teeth (upper jaw with teeth in outer row larger and sharper, including a pair of large median canines, lower jaw with teeth in inner row larger and sharper); 6 pores on chin and 5 marginal pores on snout (Ref. 57396). 9-12/1/4-6 (total 12-18) gill rakers on 1st gill arch; gill rakers short, about as long as gill filament at angle between lower and upper part of gill arch (Ref. 81656). Dorsal fin long and deeply notched (Ref. 57396), with 10 spines in the first part and 1 spine and 28-33 soft fin rays in second part (Ref. 81656). Second anal fin spine rather short and slender, attaining about 2/3 of the length of 1st soft ray and comprised over 3 times in head length; caudal fin pointed; scales weakly ctenoid on body, cycloid on snout and suborbital region; lateral line extending to end of caudal fin; swim bladder carrot-shaped, its front end with a pair of appendices subdividing into an anterior group of short branches and 2 posterior groups of long, slender tubules, one of them ventral, the other dorso-lateral and longer, bordering the bladder throughout its length (Ref. 57396). Coloration: silvery grey, with series of small dark spots following scale rows, oblique on anterior part of back and sides, horizontal posteriorly; black spot at tip of spinous part of dorsal fin; pelvics and anal fin more or less dark yellowish; caudal fin dark; inside of gill cover black (Ref. 57396).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in coastal waters over muddy, sandy or rocky bottoms. Smaller individuals found in shallow waters, but rarely entering estuaries. Feed on fish (fry of the long-finned herring in Ref. 114789), shrimps and crabs (Ref. 28587). Spawn from November to March in waters of 22 to 25°C in the Gulf of Guinea. Most economically important demersal fish in West African waters.

发现于在泥泞的, 沙的或岩石底部上的沿岸水域了。 较小的个体发现于浅水域了,但是很少进入河口。 吃鱼,虾与螃蟹。 (参考文献 28587) 在几内亚湾的 22 到 25 °C 的水域从十一月到产卵三月。 在西非水域的最有经济价值的底栖鱼。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

東大西洋: 外海的摩洛哥到那米比亞。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 130435)

  濒危 (EN) (A2bd); Date assessed: 17 March 2020


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 22.7 - 27.9, mean 26.3 °C (based on 82 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00413 - 0.01752), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.71 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.33; tmax=8; assuming tm=2).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Very high vulnerability (83 of 100).
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 74.4 [44.2, 142.6] mg/100g; Iron = 0.878 [0.439, 1.545] mg/100g; Protein = 19.2 [18.0, 20.3] %; Omega3 = 0.193 [0.107, 0.321] g/100g; Selenium = 71.6 [39.2, 141.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 11.8 [4.2, 34.3] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.805 [0.582, 1.163] mg/100g (wet weight);