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Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker, 1859)

Giant moray
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Gymnothorax javanicus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnothorax javanicus (Giant moray)
Gymnothorax javanicus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes(Γένος, Είδη) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Anguilliformes (Eels and morays) > Muraenidae (Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Οικολογία

Θαλασσινό(ά) Υφαλόφιλο(α); εύρος βάθους 0 - 50 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 30°N - 25°S

Κατανομή Χώρες | Περιοχές FAO | Οικοσυστήματα | Παρουσίες | Point map | Εισαγωγές | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390) to the Marquesas and Oeno Atoll (Pitcairn Group), north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to New Caledonia and the Austral Islands.

Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 9710); μεγ. δημοσιευμένο βάρος: 30.0 kg (Ref. 30404)

Short description Κλείδες προσδιορισμού | Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Ραχιαίες άκανθες (συνολικά) : 0; Εδρικές άκανθες: 0; Σπόνδυλοι: 137 - 143. Juveniles are tan with numerous large black spots. Adults have black specks that grade into leopard-like spots behind the head and a black area surrounding the gill opening.

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

Found in lagoon and seaward reefs. Commonly seen species along deep drop-offs and slopes in Indonesian waters (Ref. 48635). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles more secretive and occur on intertidal reef flats (Ref. 37816). It feeds primarily on fishes and occasionally on crustaceans. This is the largest Indo-Pacific moray eel (Ref. 30404), perhaps reaching 3 m in length. Because of its position at the top of the reef's food chain it is often ciguatoxic. Attacks humans when provoked (Ref. 3132). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 10713. Solitary in reef holes (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Αναπαραγωγή | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Προνύμφες

Observations on prespawning behavior include a pair entwined around one another lying on the bottom of the reef area (Ref. 93344).

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής | Συνεργάτες

Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 17 August 2011

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)





Human uses

αλιεία: παραδοσιακή αλιεία; Ενυδρείο: Δημόσια ενυδρεία

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Trophic ecology
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Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
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Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Length-frequencies
Mass conversions
Recruitments
Abundances
Life cycle
Αναπαραγωγή
Maturities
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Spawnings
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Egg(s)
Egg developments
Προνύμφες
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Visual pigment(s)
Ήχοι ψαριών
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
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Human related
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Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.
References
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Διαδικτυακές πηγές

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 25.5 - 29, mean 28.1 °C (based on 902 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00052 (0.00033 - 0.00084), b=3.27 (3.14 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Τροφικό Επίπεδο (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Ελαστικότητα (Ref. 120179):  Υψηλό, ελάχιστος χρόνος για διπλασιασμό πληθυσμού < 15 μήνες (Fec = 200,000-300,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 13.9 [6.4, 22.6] mg/100g; Iron = 0.337 [0.184, 0.805] mg/100g; Protein = 18.8 [16.5, 21.5] %; Omega3 = 0.0798 [, ] g/100g; Selenium = 66.2 [30.4, 144.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 33.1 [8.1, 132.9] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.763 [0.513, 1.122] mg/100g (wet weight);