Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 2683), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 45°N - 18°S, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Angola. Also known from the Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6790); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4675)
Inhabit shallow waters to about 100 m depth, burrowing in the bottom. Feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 3697). Anterolateral glandular grooves and opercular spine with venom gland (Ref. 57406). Oviparous, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4675).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roux, C., 1990. Trachinidae. p. 893-895. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.7 - 21.5, mean 18.6 °C (based on 274 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00511 - 0.02146), b=2.92 (2.74 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 76 [44, 137] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.938 [0.546, 1.531] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.7, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.395 [0.273, 0.571] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.1 [15.9, 55.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.4 [8.6, 54.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.753 [0.545, 1.059] mg/100g (wet weight);