Junior synonym Tor mosal is considered valid by Pinder et al., 2019 (Ref. 123468:428).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.4 - 8.0; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. 56197), usually - 1 m (Ref. 56197). Subtropical; 13°C - 30°C (Ref. 40948); 34°N - 20°N
Asia: Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh (Ref. 4832), Bhutan (Ref. 9418) and Mynmar (Ref. 57739).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 33 - ? cm
Max length : 275 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6695); common length : 183 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6694); max. published weight: 54.0 kg (Ref. 1479)
Inhabit streams, riverine pools and lakes. Found in rapid streams with rocky bottom (Ref. 41236). Omnivorous, feeding on fish, zooplankton, dipteran larvae and plant matter (Ref. 40948). Juveniles subsist on plankton while fingerlings feed mainly on algae (Ref. 40948). Ascend streams to breed over gravel and stones and returns to perennial ponds after breeding. The most common Himalayan mahseer and a very attractive sport fish, with excellent food value. Specimens over 30 cm and 5 kg in weight are rarely caught in recent times (Ref. 41236). Threatened due to over harvesting and habitat loss (Ref. 58490).
Migrate from the lower to the middle reaches of streams or rivers to spawn (Ref. 40949). Spawning takes place during low phase of flood (Ref. 56197). Fry are found among stones in marginal areas of the stream (Ref. 56197).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00727 - 0.01043), b=2.99 (2.94 - 3.04), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.38 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 15.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=1.5; K=0.07; Fec=26,998).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 110 [44, 236] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.41 [0.59, 2.70] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.5, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.384 [0.204, 0.672] g/100g ; Selenium = 48.5 [17.7, 108.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.9 [3.6, 26.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.35 [0.78, 2.32] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.