Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Acanthocybium: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, kybion. -ou = a tunna (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 20 m (Ref. 89972), usually - 12 m (Ref. 5227). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 59°N - 48°S, 180°W - 180°E
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans: in tropical and subtropical waters, including the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 99.3, range 85 - 105 cm
Max length : 250 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 170 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9340); max. published weight: 83.0 kg (Ref. 168)
(total): 23 - 27;
soft rays: 12 - 14;
Vertebrae: 62 - 64. Mouth large with strong, triangular, compressed and finely serrate teeth. Snout about as long as the rest of head. Posterior part of maxilla completely concealed under preorbital bone. Gill rakers absent. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Swim bladder present. Body covered with small scales. No anterior corselet developed. The back is iridescent bluish green; the sides silvery with 24 to 30 cobalt blue vertical bars which extend to below the lateral line.
An oceanic, epipelagic species frequently solitary or forming small loose aggregations rather than compact schools. Feed on fishes and squids. Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6769). An important sport fish in some areas (Ref. 9340). Marketed fresh, salted or spice-cured slices of meat; also frozen (Ref. 9987). Flesh of very good quality (Ref. 9684). Minimum depth from Ref. 005227.
Spawning seems to extend over a long period; fish in different maturity stages are frequently caught at the same time.
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.2 - 27.6, mean 24.7 °C (based on 46871 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00197 - 0.00384), b=3.17 (3.07 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.34; tm=1-2 y; tmax >4; Fec=6 million).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.4 [19.8, 72.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.64 [0.92, 2.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.9 [20.8, 22.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.289 [0.164, 0.517] g/100g ; Selenium = 48.4 [24.7, 95.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.38 [1.69, 18.97] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.524 [0.352, 0.818] mg/100g (wet weight);