Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Macrouridae
(Grenadiers or rattails)
Etymology: Ventrifossa: Latin, venter, ventris = belly + Latin, fosa = pit (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 387 - 455 m (Ref. 27311), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 38°N - 25°N, 125°E - 144°E (Ref. 1371)
Northwest Pacific: Choshi to Kagoshima in Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Scales very small, sparsely covered with slender conical to lanceolate spinules in widely divergent V rows. Snout in young individuals with faint blackish margin along its leading edge, older individuals appear to have only a blackish snout tip.
Feeds primarily on euphausiids, prawns, and isopods (Ref. 1371).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.5 - 14, mean 10.3 °C (based on 8 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00209 (0.00101 - 0.00430), b=3.19 (3.01 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .