Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 350 - 1000 m (Ref. 4470), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 21°N - 19°S
Eastern Atlantic: Cape Blanc, Mauritania to Angola; extending to Walvis Bay, Namibia (Ref. 11228). Western Central Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 27768) and Cuba (Ref. 26340).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3991)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Mesopelagic, adults found in 500-700 m depth (Ref. 4470). Living on or near the bottom, probably moves in schools (Ref. 37473).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., J.C. Njock and M.M. de la Hoz, 1990. Photichthyidae. p. 343-348. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4470)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.3 - 9.3, mean 7.6 °C (based on 44 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00147 - 0.00985), b=3.12 (2.90 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .