Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Solenostomidae
Etymology: Solenostomus: Greek, solen = tube + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Pallas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 35 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to southeast Australia and New Caledonia. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
soft rays: 17 - 21;
Vertebrae: 32 - 33. Post-pelagic are almost fully transparent and more slender compared to those established in the benthic phase. Variable in color from black to red and yellow, usually in a mix of bands and spots (Ref. 48635). Total body number of plates 31-35. Caudal fin truncate, rounded or lanceolate. Caudal fins of females modified into brood pouch (Ref. 9829).
Adults usually settle along reef edges in current-prone areas (Ref. 48635). Uncommon species found solitary or paired, among branches of gorgonians, floating weeds, or crinoids (Ref. 9710). They feed mostly on mysids but also target small benthic shrimps (Ref. 48635). Females carry the eggs in their pelvic fins that are modified to form a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelvic fins of females are modified as brood pouch for the reception of the eggs (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.9 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 626 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 159 [87, 301] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.831 [0.497, 1.375] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.3, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.138 [0.081, 0.250] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.2 [16.3, 68.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 93.8 [33.0, 254.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.71 [1.16, 2.47] mg/100g (wet weight);