Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 89972), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 9269). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (Ref. 4113) to Panama, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to the Lord Howe and the Society islands. Referred to as Antennarius moluccensis by authors.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
soft rays: 8. Comes in a variety of colors: yellow, orange, green, brown, and black. Bony part of illicium about equal to length of the 2nd dorsal spine (10.2-16.9 %SL); esca a small tuft of flattened appendages (Ref. 4538). Illicial length in %SL: 19.3-25.2 (Ref. 6773). Membrane behind 2nd dorsal spine thick and spinulose, extending to base of third (Ref. 6773). One of the largest species (Ref. 48635).
Found in lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710), often on jetty (Ref. 48635). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feed on fish (Ref. 11889) and small shrimps (Ref. 89972). Oviparous. Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773). Solitary and frequently among sponges in 1-50 m, usually less than 20 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Eggs are bound in ribbon-like sheath or mass of gelatinous mucus called 'egg raft' or 'veil' (Ref. 6773).
Pietsch, T.W. and D.B. Grobecker, 1987. Frogfishes of the world. Systematics, zoogeography, and behavioral ecology. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 420 p. (Ref. 6773)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 652 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.3 [17.9, 59.7] mg/100g; Iron = 0.568 [0.304, 0.993] mg/100g; Protein = 19 [17, 22] %; Omega3 = 0.105 [0.040, 0.254] g/100g; Selenium = 34.5 [16.4, 78.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 101 [26, 373] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.82 [0.53, 1.24] mg/100g (wet weight);