Teleostei (teleosts) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river.
More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 125 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 35°S, 35°E - 124°W (Ref. 54393)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa south to Durban, South Africa, east to the Hawaiian Islands, islands of French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, Japan south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 4887)
Found on coral (Ref. 58652), rocky, or rubble bottoms of reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 3921). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles form schools, adults usually solitary. Feed primarily on small fishes, crustaceans, peanut worms, shrimps, crabs, octopi, and small gastropods during the day (Ref. 3921). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 128797.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1578 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00783 - 0.01932), b=3.09 (2.96 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.4 [12.2, 58.4] mg/100g; Iron = 0.3 [0.1, 0.7] mg/100g; Protein = 18 [15, 21] %; Omega3 = 0.132 [0.073, 0.254] g/100g; Selenium = 61.8 [28.3, 147.8] μg/100g; VitaminA = 292 [55, 1,307] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.39 [0.23, 0.74] mg/100g (wet weight);