Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Paramonacanthus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha ) thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 50 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indian Ocean: both sides of India, and across to the western coast of Thailand. A small post-pelagic juvenile has been collected from the Maldives.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 27 - 30;
Vertebrae: 19. Body width 1.9-2.5 in head length; body depth 2.0-2.8 in SL; head length 2.6-3.0 in SL; snout length 3.7-4.3 in SL; eye diameter 2.7-3.8 in head length. Head and body pale, with three wide, darker but rather indistinct stripes on body, first from eye to anterior half of soft dorsal base, second from above gill opening, continuing posteriorly to rear half of soft dorsal base, and third curving up from ventral flap, extending along midside of body to caudal peduncle; two prominent dark blotches separated by a pale wedge-shaped bar below anterior portion of soft dorsal fin; caudal fin with dusky basal blotch, followed by two dark curved cross bands.
Inhabits muddy substrates in estuaries and usually found near algae rubble reef (Ref. 48637). Also found in sand bottoms of trawling grounds in 10-50 m (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hutchins, J.B., 1997. Review of the monacanthid fish genus Paramonacanthus, with descriptions of three new species. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. Suppl. No. 54:1-57. (Ref. 33065)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.5 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 576 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.01006 - 0.04340), b=2.93 (2.75 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .