Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Cymatoceps: Greek, kyma, -atos = wave, swelling, bump (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 3507), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 22°S - 35°S
Western Indian Ocean: Natal to the Cape in South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 53 - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); max. published weight: 34.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits shallow, rocky coastal areas to 80 m depth. Rarely enters estuaries. Feeds on crabs, crayfish, sea urchins and other hard-shelled animals (Ref. 3670). Takes almost any bait (Ref. 3198). Important food fish. Head considered a delicacy in some areas (Ref. 3198). It is parasitised by the monogenean Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis on the fins and body surface (Ref. 124057).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.7 - 26, mean 23.9 °C (based on 36 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00842 - 0.02848), b=3.05 (2.90 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 22.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.05; tmax=45).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.3 [18.5, 80.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.878 [0.478, 1.680] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.6, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.654 [0.325, 1.294] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.4 [14.9, 77.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.9 [3.6, 49.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.716 [0.427, 1.178] mg/100g (wet weight);