Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Cottoidei
(Sculpins) > Hexagrammidae
(Greenlings) > Pleurogramminae
Etymology: Pleurogrammus: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, gramma = letter, signal (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Metz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 240 m (Ref. 50610), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 61°N - 33°N, 119°E - 162°E (Ref. 54705)
Northwest Pacific: Primorskii Krai in Russia, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Kuril Islands to Ibaraki Prefecture and Tsushima in Japan to the Yellow Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - 31 cm
Max length : 62.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 115020); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 56527)
Vertebrae: 59 - 62. Dorsal fin without notch, if present, very shallow. Lateral lines 5. Strongly developed ridges on the upper surface of the skull.
Juveniles form large schools near the surface; adults are benthic (Ref. 559). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be pan-fried and broiled (Ref. 9988).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Female deposits egg mass in crevices or gravel in rocky coast less than 20 m depth. Male guards the eggs.
Shinohara, G. and K. Amaoka, 1994. Stellistius katsukii Jordan et Tanaka, 1927, a junior synonym of Pleurogrammus azonus Jordan et Metz, 1913 (Scorpaeniformes: Hexagrammidae). Jap. J. Ichthyol. 40(4):487-490. (Ref. 11913)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.7 - 20.5, mean 12.8 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7502 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00411 - 0.01682), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Prior r = 0.55, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 22.1 [8.0, 71.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.54 [0.20, 1.23] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.1, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.805 [0.383, 1.983] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.4 [13.5, 56.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10 [4, 27] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.522 [0.250, 1.031] mg/100g (wet weight);