Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Notopteridae
(Featherbacks or knifefishes) > Xenomystinae
Etymology: Papyrocranus: Greek, papyros = paper rush + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.5 - ? ; dH range: 10 - ?. Tropical; 24°C - 30°C (Ref. 2059)
Africa: Niger basin (upper Niger, Benue and Niger Delta), most coastal river basins from Senegal and Gambia eastward to include the Tano and Prah basins in Ghana, and the Cross and Sanaga basins east of the Niger delta (Ref. 7431). Absent from the Volta basin, Chad, Ogooué, Kwilu-Niari or Chiloango basins (Ref. 7431).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7431); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 3516)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 113 - 141. With 35-45 ventral spines; head 5.0-5.1 times SL; eye diameter 4.6-5.3 times head length; length of nasal tentacle twice the eye diameter. Caudal vertebrae 63-69 (Ref. 7431).
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Prefers calm waters with dense vegetation.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roberts, T.R., 1992. Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7510 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00322 - 0.02146), b=2.99 (2.76 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.29).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 132 [67, 285] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.29 [0.71, 2.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.8, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.304 [0.148, 0.663] g/100g ; Selenium = 84.7 [35.5, 211.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.5 [5.1, 45.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.34 [0.85, 2.03] mg/100g (wet weight);