Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.3; dH range: 2 - 3; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 4 - ? m (Ref. 9987). Tropical; 23°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672); 20°N - 22°S
Asia: Mekong basin in Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam; also Chao Phraya basin (Ref. 43281). Introduced elsewhere and at least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6028); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2686); max. published weight: 500.00 g (Ref. 6028)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 33 - 38. Dorsal fin with short spines and long soft rays. Caudal fin slightly emarginate. First soft ray of pelvic fins prolonged into a tentacle extending posteriorly to hind margin of caudal fin. Body with numerous dark oblique cross bands which are not always distinct; presence of irregular black stripe from eye to middle of caudal fin base (Ref. 43281).
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Found in shallow sluggish or standing-water habitats with a lot of aquatic vegetation. Occurs in flooded forests of the lower Mekong and gradually moves back to rivers and Great Lake as floodwaters recede (Ref. 12693, 57235). Generally feeds on aquatic plants. Can breathe air directly, as well as absorb oxygen from water through its gills (Ref. 9987). The flesh is of good quality; may be grilled or used for fish soup. In Thailand there is a trade of dried pla salid for the benefit of people in areas where it is not caught (Ref 2686). Cultured both for food and for export as aquarium fish (Ref. 9987). Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693). Highly economic species; both by capture and culture includes in the peat areas (Ref. 57235).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male creates a bubble-nest at the surface. After fertilization, male, with the use of its mouth, collects the eggs and pushes them up into the bubble-nest (Ref. 6459). Male guards the eggs until hatching (Ref. 9987); both parents care for the young (Ref. 6028).
Rainboth, W.J., 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 6095)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.01038 - 0.01923), b=3.01 (2.93 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=1,000-10,000 eggs (Ref. 6459)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 54.3 [23.6, 246.2] mg/100g; Iron = 1.14 [0.50, 2.51] mg/100g; Protein = 18.4 [16.7, 19.8] %; Omega3 = 0.233 [0.083, 0.638] g/100g; Selenium = 38.7 [14.9, 93.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 27.7 [7.1, 118.2] μg/100g; Zinc = 2.55 [1.22, 5.01] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.