Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 33°N - 2°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda (Ref. 7251), Florida (USA), Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and Brazil to 2°S; absent from Bahamas and West Indies (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Found on soft bottom (Ref. 5217). Synchronously hermaphroditic. Good food fish (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Has a well developed accessory reproductive structure (ARS) which consists of a post-ovarian sinus and numerous well-developed villi which project into the sinus from the sinus wall (Ref. 102260).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.1 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 350 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00579 - 0.01576), b=3.16 (3.02 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52.7 [30.3, 100.2] mg/100g; Iron = 0.576 [0.309, 0.964] mg/100g; Protein = 18.5 [16.7, 20.2] %; Omega3 = 0.178 [0.116, 0.273] g/100g; Selenium = 32.5 [19.0, 56.3] μg/100g; VitaminA = 121 [43, 385] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.17 [0.81, 1.65] mg/100g (wet weight);