Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Alcock.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 220 - 737 m (Ref. 26267), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman, Bay of Bengal off Madras Coast, off west coast of India, Gulf of Manaár, and off Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26267)
Mature female specimens with elongate ovaries at sizes 9.26 and 9.35 cm SL were examined. Nothing is known of its life history (Ref. 26267).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and B.N. Marsh, 1997. Taxonomic status of three nominal species of Indo-Pacific symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes). Ichthyol. Res. 44(2):189-200. (Ref. 26267)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.5 - 2.3, mean 2 °C (based on 18 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .