Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 33°N - 20°S
Eastern Pacific: Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico and southern Gulf of California to Ecuador.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body short, deep, and compressed; mouth small; teeth small, villiform, and only slightly hooked, didsappearing with age; lower branch of first gill arch with 9 to 12 gill rakers; dorsal fin with 6 spines followed by another spine and 17 to 19 soft rays (VII+I,17-19); nape prominent in adults; upper third of head and body dark; belly silvery; a dark axillary stain I covered by the pectoral fin (Ref. 55763).
Adults occur in coastal waters (Ref. 9283). They are common in shallow water and feed mainly on mollusks, but also take crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are frequently encountered in estuaries and feed on a variety of benthic invertebrates (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9283)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.8 - 28.5, mean 25.9 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00796 - 0.02506), b=2.95 (2.79 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .