Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Smith.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and Oman, Mozambique and South Africa to western Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 92.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3287); max. published weight: 14.1 kg (Ref. 3287)
Adults inhabit coastal areas with reefs or rocky outcrops (Ref. 3197). They are found normally in pairs on reefs but may be solitary or form schools (Ref. 5213, 90102). Juveniles in sheltered bays. Adults feed on mollusks (mussels) and crabs (Ref. 5213).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1984. Carangidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3287)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.3 - 28.2, mean 26.2 °C (based on 49 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.00851 - 0.04901), b=2.84 (2.65 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.2 [18.4, 86.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.69 [0.36, 1.59] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.4, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.239 [0.116, 0.503] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.6 [17.2, 94.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34.9 [7.9, 142.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.1 [0.6, 1.8] mg/100g (wet weight);