Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Ehiravinae
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 14°N - 4°N, 73°E - 83°E (Ref. 188)
Asia: Southern India and Sri Lanka.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 4.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 16 - 27. With 5 to 8 unkeeled pre-pelvic scutes, followed by an equally thin pelvic scute, all with slender ascending arms; no post-pelvic scutes. Snout pointed, lower jaw a little prominent, with barely visible teeth in each jaw; second supra-maxilla short, about half length of maxilla blade.
Occurs in estuaries, lagoons and as much as 10 km up rivers, presumably tolerating a wide range of salinity. Reported to feed exclusively on rotifers (Ref. 6028). Marketed fresh or dried salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00190 - 0.01153), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 1070 [504, 2,134] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.99 [1.60, 5.74] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.3, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.818 [0.323, 2.082] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.3 [12.7, 94.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.8 [8.9, 78.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 3.29 [2.13, 5.20] mg/100g (wet weight);