Teleostei (teleosts) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Labeoninae
Etymology: Labeo: Latin, labeo = one who has large lips (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 15; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 24°C - 27°C (Ref. 1672)
Asia: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and Borneo.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37770); max. published weight: 7.0 kg (Ref. 37770)
Has black body and fins; a large dorsal fin, with anterior branched dorsal rays longer than head length; 15-18 branched dorsal rays; both lips fringed; juveniles all black; large adults grey with one iridescent spot on each scale (Ref. 27732).
Occurs in rivers, streams, canals and inundated floodplains. Sometimes seen in impoundments, but not in great numbers. Like other planktivorous and detritivorous carps, it begins spawning after the first thunderstorms of the coming rainy season. It spawns upstream from shallow sandbars that line long river bends. The eggs settle out in the shallow water and hatch just as water levels begin to rise following the initiation of seasonal rains. The fry immediately move into inundated grasses along the bank and continue to follow the leading edge of the advancing water as floodwaters spread over the land. Adults also migrate out into seasonally flooded areas where they feed on algae, periphyton, phytoplankton and detritus. They return to rivers from October to December (Ref. 12693). In Laos and Thailand, it migrates upstream at the onset of rainy season. In Cambodia, it undertakes upstream migration between October and March and downstream migration from March to August (Ref. 37770). A desirable food fish which is marketed fresh, dried and salted (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roberts, T.R., 1989. The freshwater fishes of Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia). Mem. Calif. Acad. Sci. 14:210 p. (Ref. 2091)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00517 - 0.01686), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 110 [30, 194] mg/100g; Iron = 0.766 [0.454, 1.372] mg/100g; Protein = 16.4 [15.5, 17.3] %; Omega3 = 0.351 [0.134, 0.960] g/100g; Selenium = 385 [148, 1,069] μg/100g; VitaminA = 13.7 [5.0, 39.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.4 [0.8, 2.8] mg/100g (wet weight);