Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 18 - 68 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
West Pacific: continental margins from Australia and the Philippines; expected elsewhere in Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5978)
soft rays: 8. This species is characterized by 3 narrow dark stripes, the first from nape along base of first dorsal fin, the second above eye to upper caudal peduncle, the third midlateral from front of snout to end of caudal fin; pectoral rays 13-14; well-developed gill rakers 14-16, total with rudiments 17-21; first dorsal spines 7 (Ref. 58479).
Nocturnal species. Occurs inshore over soft bottom (Ref. 7300).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Kailola, P.J., 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. II Scorpaenidae to Callionymidae. Research Bulletin No. 41, Research Section, Dept. of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 6192)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 28.5, mean 27.2 °C (based on 176 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00528 - 0.02384), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 194 [100, 466] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.4 [0.8, 2.3] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.205 [0.111, 0.374] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.5 [12.0, 53.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 154 [54, 439] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.87 [1.23, 2.86] mg/100g (wet weight);