Literature Cited

Author names need standardization

This section includes citations to all literature mentioned in the previous parts, along with some additional references that complete a series in which only some works in that series are actually cited.

AUTHOR. Author's initials are given, and to obtain a date-ordered printout, these have been standardized. For example, Theodore Gill published as T. Gill, T.N. Gill, and Theodore Gill; these are treated as authored by T.N. Gill, although both abbreviations did not appear in some of his publications. If an author's name normally has a diacritical mark, it is added to all citations of that author, for example Géry publishes both as Géry and Gery. We are unable to provide diacritical marks for some languages, such as Romanian. Chinese names are given as they might appear in an English language journal. Typically there is a family name plus two given names, and the two given names are often written together or hyphenated. Wu is given as H.-W. Wu although in the actual article his name may be given as Wu Hsienwen, Wu Hsien-Wen, H.-w. Wu, H.-W. Wu, or H. W. Wu.

All names with ‘de’ are entered in one form; de Buen, for example, published as Buen and as de Buen. Some cross-referencing of names is provided.

Many large books, such as Smiths’ Sea Fishes have chapters authored by specialists, and in order to show the specialists’ involvement, especially for status documentation, we have a separate entry for each author with an individual reference number for the families in Smiths’ Sea Fishes treated by that author.

Arrangement by author is alphabetical, but in outputting from databases to word-processing, those names with diacritical marks occur further down than anticipated, e.g., Günther references appear at the end of the G’s and were ‘manually’ moved up. Alphabetizing is on the first two authors, so entries with more than two authors may or may not be in the correct sequence alphabetically.

Dates may differ from that on the publication

DATE OF PUBLICATION. The year given is that in which the publication appeared first in an available (published) way. The date may differ from that appearing on the journal or publication, and dates may be advanced because of preprints (see Appendix A). When available, the month or month and day of publication is given in parenthesis after the year. References are ordered by year, not by date of publication within a year.

REFERENCE NUMBER. Each reference has a unique reference number, and this is given next in brackets. The number corresponds to the entry of that reference in a larger database maintained at the California Academy of Sciences. A unique number is used instead of ‘a, b, c., etc.’ that one might find in a smaller bibliography. The unique numbers were an aid in proofing original descriptions that could be accessed by reference number/page. The use of reference numbers also allows on-line searches by reference numbers and downloading of them electronically.

TITLE. The title of the article is given as published with the article; not the title as given, for example, in a table of contents (which sometimes differs). Scientific names are italicized even though, because of constraints in type style, they may not have been so treated in the title as published. Titles in Russian, Japanese, and Chinese are given in English.

BOOK AND JOURNAL CITATIONS. Journal abbreviations in general follow the BioSciences Information Service ‘Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Data Base, volume 1984.’ We have composed comparable abbreviated journal titles for old, discontinued journals not treated in the BIOSIS list. We capitalize the first letter of all nouns and adjectives, so we give, for example, ‘Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.’ rather than ‘Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Phila.’ To aid in finding literature, we designate volume (‘v’), number (no.), part (pt), or other amplification, but usually if a foreign word (e.g., tome, fascicle) corresponds to an English word, we give the English equivalent abbreviation. This is followed by the inclusive pages of the work and plates if any.

REMARKS. Information in brackets includes the original language of the article if not clear from the title, sources for information on dates of publication, or dates of appearance of parts of the work if it was published in sections. The entry ‘Not seen.’ at the end of a reference indicates that the work or article has not been examined.

How to get there

You get to the REFERENCES table by clicking on the Eschmeyer’s References button in the REFERENCES window, by double-clicking on the Author field in the SPECIES window, or by double-clicking on the Author field in the SYNONYMS window.


On the Internet version of FishBase, you can search the references of the Catalog by selecting the Eschmeyer radio button in the ‘References’ section at the bottom of the ‘Search FishBase’ page. You also get to this database if you click the Author of a species either in the Species Summary or the Synonyms page.

William N. Eschmeyer