Epinephelus marginatus, Dusky grouper : fisheries, gamefish

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Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)

Dusky grouper
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Epinephelus marginatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus marginatus (Dusky grouper)
Epinephelus marginatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) 鱸形目 (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lowe.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 8 - 300 m (Ref. 27000), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 5222). 亞熱帶的; 54°N - 43°S, 65°W - 58°E (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

East and Southwest Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: East Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean Sea, and from the southern Bay of Biscay to southern tip of Africa. Stray specimens reported from the British Isles, and eastern English Channel (Normandy, France; Ref. 92236). Southwest Atlantic: southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. Western Indian Ocean: from tip of Africa to southern Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Reported from Oman and La Reunion I.
東大西洋與西印度洋: 在地中海與從各處,英國人使非洲到莫三比克南部與馬達加斯加的圓到最南端成為島嶼 (參考文獻 48610) 。 西南大西洋: 巴西東南方,烏拉圭與阿根廷。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 49.2, range 37 - 54 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12382); 最大體重: 60.0 kg (Ref. 5222); 最大年齡: 60 年 (Ref. 94520)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 14-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: head and body dark reddish brown or greyish dorsally, usually yellowish gold ventrally; irregular white, pale greenish yellow or silvery grey blotches usually visible on the body and head and mostly arranged in vertical series; more or less distinct black maxillary streak; dark brown median fins; distal edge of anal and caudal fins, often also pectoral fins, narrowly white; pelvic fins blackish distally; pectoral fins dark reddish brown or grey; margin of spinous dorsal fin and basal part of the paired fins often golden yellow; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; smooth subopercle and interopercle; eye diameter greater than or subequal to interorbital width in fish 10-30 cm SL, less than interorbital in fish over 40 cm SL; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal or posterior nostril slightly larger; maxilla naked, reaching to or slightly past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults prefer rocky bottoms (Ref. 5222), are solitary and territorial (Ref. 12382). Juveniles are found closer to shore (Ref. 48605) in rocky tidal pools (Ref. 48609). Enters brackish environments (Ref. 57293). Mainly feed on crabs and octopi; larger individuals feed on a greater proportion of fishes, the majority of which are reef-associated species (Ref. 6842). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Mature individuals form spawning aggregations (Ref. 55367). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 171). Readily caught by anglers (Ref. 5222). Not adapted well in an aquarium (Ref. 12382).

偏愛岩石底部。 (參考文獻 5222) 獨居性的與具有領域性.(參考文獻 12382) 稚魚在岩石的潮池中被發現更靠近海岸 (參考文獻 48605) 。 (參考文獻 48609) 吃螃蟹與章魚; 較大的個體吃魚的較大的比例, 多數的那是珊瑚礁性的種.(參考文獻 6842) 一個雌性先熟的雌雄同體.(參考文獻 55367) 產卵群集的表格.(參考文獻 55367) 作為食用魚.(參考文獻 171) 輕易地被垂釣者捕獲了。 (參考文獻 5222) 在一個水族館適應不良。 (參考文獻 12382)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). In Europe, sex reversal occurs when females are about 14-17 years of age and between 80 to 90 cm TL (Ref. 51466). From another study, sex change occurs at 88 cm TL and 12 years of age (Ref. 55367), between 52-77 cm TL and 7-17 years (Ref. 94520). Protogynous hermaphrodite species, reaching its first sexual maturity as female at 5 years and becoming male after 10 years (some females remain so for some more years). Spawning happens during summer.東大西洋與西印度洋: 在地中海與從各處,英國人使非洲到莫三比克南部與馬達加斯加的圓到最南端成為島嶼 (參考文獻 48610) 。 西南大西洋: 巴西東南方,烏拉圭與阿根廷。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 125652)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
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生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

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養殖資訊
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Mass conversion
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 13.3 - 25.8, mean 19 °C (based on 33 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00672 - 0.01558), b=3.07 (2.95 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.03-0.09; tmax=50; tm=7).
Prior r = 0.36, 95% CL = 0.24 - 0.55, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.04 [4.22, 22.26] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.482 [0.239, 1.012] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.0, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.167 [0.089, 0.310] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.6 [10.6, 46.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 114 [27, 437] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.715 [0.418, 1.193] mg/100g (wet weight);