Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Coiliinae
Etymology: Thryssa: Greek, thrissa, -es = shad (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - 50 m (Ref. 189), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 27°N - 3°N, 64°E - 88°E (Ref. 189)
Indian Ocean: India, perhaps reaching to Pakistan, but not recorded from the Gulf and the Red Sea, its place in the Gulf being taken by Thryssa whiteheadi.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
soft rays: 34 - 38. Belly with 23 to 26 keeled scutes (isthmus to anus). Tip of snout about level of upper rim of eye. Maxilla moderate; first supra-maxilla small, oval; jaw teeth small. A dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening; small spots on cheek, gill cover, maxilla and paired fins; gill arches pinky orange, inside of gill cover yellow and gold; inner part of anal fin deep yellow, margin whitish.
A schooling fish found mostly inshore and perhaps entering estuaries. Although the name malabarica features in the literature, there can be no certainty that it refers to present species.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 28.6, mean 27.5 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00220 - 0.00687), b=3.11 (2.96 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .