Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; acqua dolce; salmastro demersale; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: ? - 30; distribuzione batimetrica - 1 m (Ref. 105091), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 21°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 33°N - 5°N, 64°E - 97°E
Asia: Pakistan and Sri Lanka to Myanmar. Introduced elsewhare.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 89109)
Adults found mainly in ponds, ditches, swamps and marshes, but sometimes occur in muddy rivers. Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). Can tolerate slightly brackish water. Omnivorous. Breed in confined waters during the monsoon months, but can breed in ponds, derelict ponds and ditches when sufficient rain-water accumulates. Oviparous, distinct pairing possibly like other members of the same family (Ref. 205). In great demand due to its medicinal value. Venomous fish, from its pectoral spines (Ref. 94495).
Eggs are deposited in a depression usually excavated by both parents in mud, in shallow water. Parents guard the eggs and young until they can fend for themselves which lasts for about one month (Ref. 6028).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. (Ref. 4833)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4716)
Pesca: elevato interesse commerciale; Acquacoltura: commerciale; Acquario: Commerciale
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00175 - 0.00992), b=3.10 (2.89 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.23; tm=1; Fec=4,200).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 284 [98, 657] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.89 [1.01, 3.58] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.2 [14.6, 17.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.451 [0.165, 1.303] g/100g ; Selenium = 99.5 [29.8, 283.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.7 [6.5, 69.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.41 [0.79, 2.52] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.