The species Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870) following Menon (1999: Ref. 41236). Please send references, or more studies are needed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; air tawar; payau bentopelagis; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 5 - m (Ref. 4832), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 28°N - 7°N
Asia: native to large rivers in the Indian subcontinent (Ref. 12693). Has been so widely transported in connection to aquaculture that its natural distribution can no longer be determined (Ref. 33488).
Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 33488); common length : 40.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 6028); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 12.7 kg (Ref. 4832)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 12-15; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 39. Body plain greyish; 12-15 branched dorsal rays (Ref. 43281).
Adults inhabit fast flowing streams and rivers (Ref. 41236). Can tolerate high levels of salinity. Juveniles are omnivorous to about 5 cm TL, adults are almost entirely herbivorous. Feed on plankton, but also grazes on algae. Spawning occurs in marginal areas of the water body with a depth of 50-100 cm over a sand or clay substrate. A 6 kg female can lay a million eggs (of 1 mm diameter) (Ref. 6028). Widely cultured in India but fails to breed naturally in ponds, thus induced breeding is done. Fishery harvests 40 cm fish weighing 1000 g and of about 3 years. A very active fish that thrives in ponds but spawns in swift rivers. Fingerlings are in great demand for stocking ponds between July and November (Ref. 4832).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva
Roberts, T.R., 1997. Systematic revision of the tropical Asian labeon cyprinid fish genus Cirrhinus, with descriptions of new species and biological observations on C. lobatus. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 45:171-203. (Ref. 33488)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 124695)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00727 - 0.01044), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.17 se; based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.12-0.29).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 188 [86, 396] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.17 [0.53, 2.08] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.7 [15.5, 17.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.38 [0.14, 1.02] g/100g ; Selenium = 203 [72, 545] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.7 [3.5, 29.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.808 [0.368, 1.407] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.