Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; acqua dolce; salmastro benthopelagico; potamodromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 5 - m (Ref. 4832), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 18°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468); 34°N - 19°S
Asia: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar. Introduced elsewhere.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 182 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 41236); peso massimo pubblicato: 38.6 kg (Ref. 72380)
Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 17; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 7 - 8. Body deep, with depth 2.5 to 3 times in standard length (Ref. 4832). Has a large, upturned mouth (Ref. 3264), with a prominent protruding lower jaw (Ref. 4832). Pectoral fins long, extending to pelvic fins; scales conspicuously large (Ref. 4832).
Adults occur in rivers, lakes and culture ponds (Ref. 41236). Mature individuals breed in rivers (Ref. 4832). Surface and mid-water feeders, mainly omnivorous with juveniles feeding on aquatic and terrestrial insects, detritus and phytoplankton.
Menon, A.G.K., 1999. Check list - fresh water fishes of India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Misc. Publ., Occas. Pap. No. 175, 366 p. (Ref. 41236)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Pesca: elevato interesse commerciale; Acquacoltura: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00552 - 0.01438), b=3.08 (2.95 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.22 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.28; tm=3-5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 139 [48, 316] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.19 [0.55, 2.25] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [16.0, 18.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.893 [0.320, 2.545] g/100g ; Selenium = 76.5 [28.6, 239.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 2.18 [0.60, 8.13] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.875 [0.493, 1.528] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.