Larvae Information Summary for  Pontinus sierra
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Main Ref: Moser, H.G. 1996
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm)        
Preanal L. % TL        
Place of development planktonic
Larval area California Current region
Yolk-sac       Ref:  
Yolk   Oil globules  
Rows on tail  
Other melanophores on tail  
Post larvae
Striking feature other
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal  
Striking feature other
Shape of gut  
Gas bladder   early   late  
Spinal armature   early otocystic spines only late several different spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk no melanophores on head or trunk
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head
Pectorals normal with rows of melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent) melanophores at fin base
Relative preanal length, body depth, head length and eye diameter (after flexion stage) greater than in Pontinus sp.; notochord flexion and transition to pelagic juvenile occur at smaller size than in Pontinus sp.; pigment pattern somewhat different, especially oblique bar on pectoral fins; head spines larger than in other species; spiny suborbital ridge strongly developed. Pigmentation: Flexion: a few remaining from postanal ventral series present in preflexion stage; embedded shield above gas bladder; on pectoral fins, elongate blotch on upper distal region, blotch on lower proximal region, and blotch on inner surface of base; blotch on first dorsal fin from third dorsal fin spine or 4th dorsal fin spine to 6th dorsal fin spine, 7th, or 8th; beginning of saddles below first dorsal fin; blotch at pelvic fin base. Postflexion: blotches on pectoral fin blade join to form an oblique bar, wider on upper region of fin; 2 broad saddles at first dorsal fin; saddle at second dorsal fin enlarges ventrad to form broad bar by end of stage; above and lateral to brain; basal region of branchiostegal membrane; on posterior region of opercle. Pelagic juvenile: first dorsal almost solid with darker region from 6th dorsal fin spine to 10th dorsal fin spine; blotch on 2nd dorsal fin confluent with bar; lateral blotch at caudal peduncle expands to form bar; most of head covered. Benthic juvenile: scattered laterally on head, except lower cheek region; broad bars under 1st dorsal fin and 2nd dorsal fin, and bar forming on caudal peduncle; on 1st dorsal fin, with black blotch at 7th-10th spines; basally on 2nd dorsal fin.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
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