Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hilgendorf.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 25; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 34291), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 34291). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060), preferred ?; 3°N - 5°S
Africa: Lakes Victoria, Nabugabo and Kyoga, affluent rivers of Lake Victoria, Victoria Nile (Ref. 4903). Also found in the Lake Rukwa drainage (Ref. 27292), the Malagarazi River (Ref. 54847, 98755) and the Middle Akagera system (Ref. 46152, 54979). Specimens from Kingani River (=Ruvu River) are misidentifications of S. orientalis (Ref. 78218).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.6, range 10 - 12 cm
Max length : 17.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34290)
(total): 7. 32-54 mandibular teeth. Maxillary barbels reaching almost to the origin of the pelvic fin in some specimens and to the tip of the humeral process in others. Outer mandibular barbels with slender branches, inner pair with shorter, but slender branches. Marbled yellowish-brown (marbling is extremely variable, some individuals uniformly brown) (Ref. 34290).
Lives in streams and rivers and in lakes, where it prefers shore regions (Ref. 78218). More common in rivers than in lakes (Ref. 12526). Common in marginal vegetation of Kagera River (Ref. 4903). Replaces S. victoriae in shallow waters of Lake Victoria (Ref. 4903), prefers areas less than 20 m deep (Ref. 34290). Feeds on insects (Povilla and chironomid larvae) and molluscs (Ref. 12526). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Rarely grows to lengths greater than 15 cm SL (Ref. 34290).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Gosse, J.-P., 1986. Mochokidae. p. 105-152. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3202)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 200).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .