Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Nettastomatidae
Etymology: Venefica: Latin, vena = vein + Latin, fica, facere = to make (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 385 - 2200 m (Ref. 54804). Deep-water, preferred ?
Worldwide in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters (Ref. 33390).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4454)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Greyish black in color, darker on snout, throat and belly (Ref. 6591).
Inhabits the lower continental slope (Ref. 4454).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, D.G., 1990. Nettastomatidae. p. 172-175. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4454)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00081 (0.00030 - 0.00219), b=3.02 (2.79 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .