Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical, preferred ?; 14°N - 17°S
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal and Guinea to the Gulf of Guinea and Angola. Reported from the Gambia River (Ref. 28587).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); common length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)
soft rays: 14 - 18. Diagnosis: body elongate; upper and lower jaws extremely long, forming a stout beak armed with strong teeth; nostrils in depression before eyes (nasal pit); gill rakers absent; pelvic fins abdominal; 13-16 dorsal-fin rays; no lateral keel on caudal peduncle; caudal fin emarginated (Ref. 57228).
Occurs in coastal areas and brackish lagoons. Feeds mainly on small fishes (Ref. 28587). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and N.V. Parin, 1990. Belonidae. p. 592-597. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5757)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00141 (0.00060 - 0.00333), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .