Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 320 - 940 m (Ref. 13608). Deep-water, preferred ?
Western Atlantic: off Florida (Ref. 12965, 13608), northern coast of Colombia, and off Suriname (Ref. 13608), Brazil (Ref. 53436).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 84.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Lack of thorns along the midbelt of the disc from the level of the axils of the pectoral fins to the vicinity of the spiracles. Tails widen rearward toward the dorsal fins. No interspace between the bases of the dorsal fins. Upper surface pale brown, darker along posterior margins of disc, pelvic fins and tail. Dorsal fins and caudal black. Lower surface margined with black rearward from the level of the mouth (Ref. 6902).
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00135 - 0.00677), b=3.21 (3.03 - 3.39), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .