Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 75 m (Ref. 5217), usually 0 - 10 m (Ref. 26268). Tropical, preferred ?; 25°N - 30°S, 87°W - 30°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: Puerto Rico, Cuba and Hispaniola but unknown from the Bahamas. Continental margin of Central America (Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) to South America (Colombia, Guyana, suriname, Tobago and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35237); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
A shallow water species (1-51 m) (Ref. 26268), found over mud or sand bottoms (Ref. 5217) where it feeds on small benthic invertebrates likes annelids and crustaceans. Normally found along sand banks near the mouth of rivers (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00545 - 0.01597), b=2.96 (2.80 - 3.12), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .