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Sternarchella calhamazon  Lundberg, Coz Fernandes, Campos da Paz & Sullivan, 2013

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Sternarchella calhamazon
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drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gymnotiformes (Knifefishes) > Apteronotidae (Ghost knifefishes)
Etymology: Sternarchella: Greek, sternon = sternon, + Greek, diminutive, archos = anus (Ref. 45335);  calhamazon: Specific name is derived from the Portuguese 'calha' for channel plus 'Amazon', and is the name given to the 1992-1997 Brazilian-US collaborative ichthyological inventory of the deep river channels of the Brazilian Amazon.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon. Widespread and common in large river channels of the Amazon-Solimões mainstem and major tributaries from the Pará and Tocantins to Iquitos, and upstream in rio Negro to at least the confluence of rio Branco, and in the rio Madeira to at least the confluence wit río Beni.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93342)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Anal soft rays: 147 - 165; Vertebrae: 77 - 79. Distinguished by its unique tail shape and the following associated characters: unusually deep caudal peduncle and electric organ; caudal peduncle depth at end of anal fin contained 12-18 times in LEA (length from snout tip to end of anal-fin base), 0.7-2.5 times in its length, and electric organ depth at end of anal fin about equal to or a little greater than snout length; caudal peduncle abruptly tapering before caudal fin; hemal spines above middle third of anal fin elongate, nearly twice longer than adjacent proximal anal-fin radials; two rows of intermuscular bones visible along ventral and ventrolateral sides of posteriorly deepening electric organ; precaudal vertebrae 13-15 including 4 vertebrae of the Weberian complex (Ref. 93342).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Albert, James S. | Collaborators

Lundberg, J.G., C. Cox Fernandez, R. Campos-Da-Paz and J.P. Sullivan, 2013. Sternarchella calhamazon n. sp., the Amazon's most abundant species of apteronotid electric fish, with a note on the taxonomic status of Sternarchus capanemae Steindachner, 1868 (Gymnotiformes, Apteronotidae). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci Phila. 162:157-173. (Ref. 93342)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki |

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00213 - 0.02147), b=2.98 (2.73 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .