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Symphurus maculopinnis  Munroe, Tyler & Tunnicliffe, 2011

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Symphurus maculopinnis
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drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae (Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335);  maculopinnis: The specific name, maculopinnis, from the Latin macula, meaning spot, and pinna, meaning fin, referring to the conspicuous spots on the dorsal and anal fins of this species; noun in apposition (Ref. 87974).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 561 m (Ref. 87974).   Tropical, preferred ?; 24°S - 25°S, 177°W - 178°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: Tonga Arc, Volcano-19. Tunnicliffe et al., 2010 (Ref. 88005) indicated that this species was also observed at shallower depths (between 195-381 m) at a second, nearby site (Volcano-1). However, re-examination of photographs indicates that the individuals upon which these observations were based can not be positively identified. Thus, reported occurrences of S. maculopinnis both at Volcano-1 and at these shallower depths is tenuous (Ref. 87974).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.4 cm SL (female)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Symphurus maculopinnis is distinguished from all other species of Symphurus by the combination of a 1–2–2–2–1 ID pattern, 14 caudal-fin rays, 3+6 abdominal vertebrae, 49 total vertebrae, about 89 scales in a longitudinal row, 92 dorsal-fin rays, 77 anal-fin rays, a blunt squarish snout, blind-side lower jaw with thick lip with conspicuous plicae, and by conspicuous ocellated (sometimes partially) black spots on the posterior dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 87974).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Known only from the holotype, collected on soft sediments at 561 m; 56 other individuals observed, but not collected, were found on a variety of substrata, including coarse gravel, gravelly sand-shell and gravelly sand, located between 433-561 m on Volcano-19, Tonga Arc, western Pacific. Considered to be a true vent species since (Ref. 87974).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Munroe, T.A., J. Tyler and V. Tunnicliffe, 2011. Description and biological observations on a new species of deepwater symphurine tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Symphurus) collected at Volcano 19, Tonga Arc, West Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa 3061:53-66. (Ref. 87974)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




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BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00305 - 0.01429), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .