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Squalius squalus  (Bonaparte, 1837)

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Squalius squalus
Picture by Bogutskaya, N.G. / Zupan?i?, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Temperate, preferred ?

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Sea basins, from Genova to southernmost Italy, Ionian Sea basin in southern Italy (Sini and Basento drainages), Adriatic basin from Ofanto drainage (southern Italy) to Skadar and Ohrid basins.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 59043)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits mainly small rivers and streams with riffles and pools. May be confined to very small pools during summer. Also found along shores of slowly flowing lowland rivers, even in very small mountain streams and in large lakes, undertaking spawning migrations to inflowing streams or spawning in very shallow water, over stones close to surf zones. Feeding larvae and juveniles occur in very shallow shoreline habitats. Juveniles are gregarious while adults are more solitary. Feeds on various aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant material. Large individuals feed mainly on fishes. Breeds in shallow riffles with fast-flowing water. Often forms hybrids with Alburnus arborella and Alburnus albidus. Attains up to at least 60 cm SL (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawns in shallow riffle habitats with fast-flowing water. Females spawn more than once during a season; individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at the spawning sits and follow ripe females, frequently with much splashing, to shallow riffles or lake shores. Females lay sticky eggs into excavations made in gravel (Ref. 59043)

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki |

More information

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Ciguatera
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00386 - 0.01712), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3-5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .