Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Cichlinae
Etymology: Cichla: Greek, kichle = wrasse (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.5 - 6.5. Tropical; 27°C - 29°C (Ref. 13614), preferred ?
South America: Amazon River basin in the Negro and Uatumã River drainages; Orinoco River basin in tributaries of the Orinoco River in Venezuela and Colombia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 31 - 36 cm
Max length : 99.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 12.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Diagnosis: A large, elongate species with small scales (E1 row scales 98-128, usually more than 110, vs. usually less than 110 in other species of Cichla). Postorbital band is present, entire, may be irregular but does not consist of scattered spots, vs. absent or present as scattered spots in other species of Cichla species. Lateral line is usually continuous. It is most similar to C. pinima and C. vazzoleri, sharing subadult to young adult color pattern including dark midlateral band and four rows of regularly arranged light spots along side, but light spots slightly elongate instead of round. It is different from C. pinima and C. vazzoleri in lacking dark lateral blotches with intensified light margins; vertical bars when expressed entire, never forming round blotches; ocellated blotches on dorsal side absent at all sizes; postorbital band entire (vs. expressed as scattered dark blotches); dark blotch associated with preopercle absent (present in C. vazzoleri); lateral line nearly always continuous (vs. usually discontinuous in C. vazzoleri) (Ref. 57716).
Occupies deeper littoral areas in lagoons and sandy and rocky banks of the main river channel. Feeds mainly on small fish (especially characids measuring <10 cm SL) (Ref. 26329, 27531). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Has been introduced to Florida and Texas, but is considered not established yet.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .