Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Sympterygia: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Müller, Henle.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 54460). Temperate, preferred ?; 32°S - 44°S
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences |
Notice: Undefined variable: speccode in E:\wwwroot\FishBase\htdocs\includes\SpeciesSummary.lib.php on line 2262
Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Southeast Pacific: Chile (Ref. 27540). Southwest Atlantic: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to Rawson, Argentina.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 64 - ? cm
Max length : 63.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 26408)
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 8.1 cm long and 4.6 cm wide (Ref. 41249). A common by-catch in the coastal and continental shelf bottom-trawl fisheries of the Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone; also fished extensively by bottom longline (Ref. 54460).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00260 - 0.01061), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .