Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical, preferred ?; 39°N - 37°S, 22°E - 178°W
Indo-Pacific: South Africa through Philippines, parts of Indonesia, Micronesia and Melanesia; north to the Mariana Islands and southern Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 36.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4393); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
(total): 4 - 5;
soft rays: 9. Greenish dorsally; flanks and abdomen silvery; small gold patch on upper operculum and iris; caudal fin bright blue, pectoral fins yellow with dark blue spot dorsally at origin (Ref. 9812).
Inhabit coastal waters, including estuaries and rivers (Ref. 5213). Young fish frequent estuaries and also ascend rivers and coastal creeks (Ref. 2847). Feed on algae, diatoms, detritus, and crustaceans (Ref. 9812). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Caught during the spawning period (Ref. 9812). Other methods include the use of stakenets, pouch nets, and barrier nets (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J. and H. Senou, 1997. Order Mugiliformes. Mugilidae. Mullets. p. 2069-2108. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9812)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00855 - 0.02128), b=3.01 (2.88 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.2 ±0.11 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .