Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 50672). Subtropical, preferred ?; 32°N - 36°S, 25°E - 58°E
Western Indian Ocean: several localities in East Africa, and from the Red Sea to the eastern Mediterranean via the Suez Canal.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 50671); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 23. Upper body gray, green or brownish, silvery below; iris iridescent silver or golden. Body color patterns extend to the fins. Spines slender, pungent and venomous. Preopercular angle 88°-96°; cheeks scaled; midline of thorax, isthmus and midline of belly without scales. Frightened fish become mottled or with 6 diagonal zones across side. Tip of broad-based flap of anterior nostril reaching at least halfway to orifice of posterior nostril.
Inhabits shallow waters and generally in schools of 50 to several hundred individuals; prefers protected areas. Feeds by grazing on algae.
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.01005 - 0.01730), b=2.97 (2.91 - 3.03), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22, tm=1-2).
Prior r = 0.66, 2 SD range = 0.38 - 1.14, log(r) = -0.42, SD log(r) = 0.28, Based on: 3 K, 2 tgen, 2 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .