Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m. Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 30°N - 6°N, 49°E - 80°E
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and coasts of India.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Adults occur in shallow coastal waters to moderate depths. Carnivorous. Sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
All populations matured as males during the first or second year (Ref. 52206).
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.01024 - 0.02815), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=11; K=0.28-0.38).
Prior r = 1.02, 2 SD range = 0.9 - 1.16, log(r) = 0.02, SD log(r) = 0.06, Based on: 1 K, 2 tgen, 1 tmax, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .