Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Plectorhinchinae
Etymology: Diagramma: Greek, diagramma = mark out by lines (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 170 m (Ref. 12260), usually 1 - 50 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 35°N - 31°S, 32°E - 170°E
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Japan, south to New Caledonia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 31.8, range 32 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3678); common length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 6.3 kg (Ref. 4699)
Typically found solitary or in groups, often in turbid water. on open muddy, sandy or silty substrates in protected bays or estuaries, around rock outcrops, wreckage and debris (Ref. 48635, 90102). Also in shallow coastal areas and coral reefs (Ref. 30573). Juveniles are found in weedy areas (Ref. 2799). Feeds on benthic invertebrates and fishes (Ref. 30573). Reportedly ciguatoxic in some areas (Ref. 2799). Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987). Five subspecies recognized across Indo-Pacific region including D. p. labiosum and D. p. pictum (Ref. 90102)
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 2799)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00616 - 0.01481), b=3.01 (2.88 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.17; tm=3-4; Fec=495,450).
Prior r = 0.51, 2 SD range = 0.34 - 0.76, log(r) = -0.67, SD log(r) = 0.2, Based on: 6 K, 2 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .