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Terapon jarbua  (Forsskål, 1775)

Jarbua terapon
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Native range | Year 2100
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Terapon jarbua   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Terapon jarbua (Jarbua terapon)
Terapon jarbua
Picture by Cook, D.C.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Terapontidae (Grunters or tigerperches)

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 350 m (Ref. 58488).   Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 36°N - 35°S, 20°E - 167°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Australia, and Lord Howe Island.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 13.0, range 9 - 17 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-11; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 7 - 10. Lower opercular spine extending well beyond the opercular flap. Post temporal bone exposed posteriorly and serrate. Body color is fawn above, cream below, nape dark; head, body and fins with and iridescent sheen. Three or four curved dark brown bands run from the nape to the hind part of the body, the lowermost continuing across the middle of the caudal fin.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over shallow sandy bottoms, in the vicinity of river mouths. Enter estuaries and rivers (Ref. 1479, 11230, 44894, 48635). Adults in loose aggregations (Ref. 48635). Juveniles common in sandy intertidal areas; often in tidal pools. Minimum depth reported is 20 m (Ref. 12260). Found in schools (Ref. 9710). Omnivorous (Ref. 7300), feeding on fishes, insects, algae, and sand-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Spawn in the sea and juveniles migrate into fresh water (Ref. 2847). Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205). Produce sound (Ref. 9137). Marketed fresh, dried or salted (Ref. 12693).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.6 - 27.9, mean 23.7 (based on 917 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.01339 - 0.02153), b=3.00 (2.93 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.