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Silurus glanis  Linnaeus, 1758

Wels catfish
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Native range
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Silurus glanis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Silurus glanis (Wels catfish)
Silurus glanis
Picture by Hartl, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes (Catfish) > Siluridae (Sheatfishes)
Etymology: Silurus: Greek, silouros = a cat fish + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9988).   Temperate; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059), preferred ?; 62°N - 36°N, 0°E - 80°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Notice: Undefined variable: speccode in E:\wwwroot\FishBase\htdocs\includes\SpeciesSummary.lib.php on line 2262 Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe and Asia. North, Baltic, Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins, as far north as southern Sweden and Finland; Aegean Sea basin in Maritza and from Struma to Sperchios drainages; Turkey. Absent from the rest of Mediterranean basin. Now widely introduced and translocated throught Europe and Lake Balkhash basin in Kazakhstan. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 87.5, range 86 - 108 cm
Max length : 500 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9988); max. published weight: 306.0 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 80 years (Ref. 59043)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 4-5; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 83 - 95. Distinguished from all other freshwater fishes in Europe by the following unique characters: two pairs of mental barbels; and anal fin with 83-91½ rays. Differs further from the following combination of features: body naked; large, depressed head; dorsal fin with 2-4½ rays; caudal fin rounded or truncate; no adipose fin; and anal rays almost touching caudal (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 17 rays (Ref. 2196).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits large and medium size lowland rivers, backwaters and well vegetated lakes (Ref. 59043). Occurs mainly in large lakes and rivers, though occasionally enters brackish water in the Baltic and Black Seas (Ref. 9988). Found in deep waters of dams constructed on the lower reaches of rivers (Ref. 9696). A nocturnal predator, foraging near bottom and in water column. Larvae and juveniles are benthic, feeding on a wide variety of invertebrates and fish. Adults prey on fish and other aquatic vertebrates. Attains first sexual maturity at 2-3 years of age (Ref. 59043). Spawns in the salt water of the Aral Sea (at Kulandy) (Ref. 1441). Marketed fresh, canned and frozen; can be pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9988). Locally threatened due to river regulation destroying shallow spawning sites (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Males defend small territories in the spawning sites and construct nests made of plant materials. They dig shallow depressions or clean spawning substrate such as willow (Salix) and roots. Males guard the nests until larvae emerge. Spawns in pairs. Eggs hatch in 2-3 days. Larvae live in the nest until yolk sac is absorbed for 2-4 (Ref. 59043). Eggs are surrounded by a mucous and adherent wrapping. Incubation lasts about 50 hours at 24°C. Egg size 3 mm, larval length at hatching 8.5 mm (Ref. 26211).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 1972. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00536 - 0.01232), b=2.92 (2.80 - 3.04), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3-4; tmax=30).
Notice: Use of undefined constant u2SD_r - assumed 'u2SD_r' in E:\wwwroot\FishBase\htdocs\includes\SpeciesSummary.lib.php on line 5014 Prior r = 0.29, 2 SD range = 0.1 - 0.87, log(r) = -1.24, SD log(r) = 0.55, Based on: 2 K, 10 tgen, 2 tmax, 5 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.