Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 91 - 238 m (Ref. 7251). Tropical, preferred ?
Western Central Atlantic: northern Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas (USA).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Mucous pores on ventral surface not so black except mouth. Outer rim of nostril fringed. Pair of small white pores behind each spiracle, smaller whitish pores in 2 rows toward the tail (Ref. 7251). Lack of thorns along the midbelt of the disc from the level of the axils of the pectorals to the vicinity of the spiracles. Interspace between the dorsal fins. Upper surface dark olive brown with many small roundish obscure spots of darker brown on disc. Lower surface jet black (Ref. 6902).
Moderately deep water species (Ref. 6902). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00135 - 0.00677), b=3.21 (3.03 - 3.39), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .