Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335); caribbeanus: Named for its area of occurrence, apparently restricted within the Caribbean Sea.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 29 m (Ref. 26268). Tropical, preferred ?; 25°N - 12°N, 85°W - 60°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: widespread in the Caribbean Sea, along coastal margins of Central and northern Sout America and off islands fringing the Caribbean; including St. Martin and Cuba.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26268)
Occurs in shallow waters (Ref. 10879); in sand and mud substrates (Ref. 26268). Feeds on polychaetes and small, benthic crustaceans. May be a nocturnal feeder (Ref. 10879).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00601 - 0.02891), b=3.03 (2.83 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.38 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .