Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.8 - 7.8; dH range: ? - 20. Tropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 2059), preferred ?
Africa: upper Gambia, Corubal, Kogon, Fatala, Konkouré, Great Scarcies/Kolenté, Rokel, Jong/Pampana, Sewa, St. John, Cess and Ofin (Pra tributary) rivers in Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana (Ref. 57223).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57223); max. published weight: 85.00 g (Ref. 3799)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length; maxillary barbels unbranched, longer than head, without tubercles and bordered by a narrow, but rather long, basal membrane that extends over half their length; inner mandibular barbels with few, short, sometimes subdivided, ramifications; mandibular teeth moderately developed, numbering 16-27 (27 in the holotype); denticulations of pectoral-fin spines almost as strong on outer as on inner margin; dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly, except for some apical denticles; humeral process relatively pointed and granulose, keeled ventrally; adipose fin low, rather short, its length less than 3 times the distance between rayed dorsal- and adipose fin, pointed posteriorly and well separated from rayed dorsal fin; body entirely spotted (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: ground colour rather light with darker marblings on back and sides, less distinct on lower parts of body; all rayed fins covered with non-aligned spots; adipose fin of the same colour as body; in juveniles, spots larger, fewer and less isolated (Ref. 57223).
Maximum TL was recorded at 18.5 cm (Ref. 7362, 57223). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00255 - 0.01493), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.29 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .