Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 4 - 69 m. Tropical; 23°C - 27°C (Ref. 1672), preferred ?; 25°N - 27°S, 17°W - 45°E
Africa: Nilo-Soudanese species, known from West Africa up to the Nile basin, soutwards up to the Cross and Sanaga (Ref. 43912). Reports from the Congo basin are based on misidentifications (Ref. 43912). Reports from southern Africa (eg. Zambesi system, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe) unconfirmed in Ref. 43912.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.1, range 15 - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57127); max. published weight: 250.00 g (Ref. 3799); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 7248)
soft rays: 45 - 64. Diagnosis: adipose fin present; anterior nostrils more closer to each other than posterior ones; inner margin of pectoral-fin spine strongly denticulate posteriorly; nasal barbel reaching to anterior eye margin, but never extending beyond hind margin of eye; mouth subterminal; 45-64 branched anal-fin rays and 9-14 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch (Ref. 57127).
Coloration: ground colour generally silvery-white; head and back brownish, fins usually colourless (Ref. 57127).
Also caught with drawnets. Shoals in standing or slowly flowing open water with emergent or submerged vegetation. Generally more active at night or in subdued light. Feed from mid-water and surface waters on a wide variety of foods including fish, insects, shrimps, snails, plant seeds, and fruit. Oviparous, eggs are unguarded (Ref. 205). Breed during the rainy season and may be either a single or multiple spawner in different localities, laying eggs on vegetation. May live up to 6-7 years (Ref. 7248). Max total length 40.0mm (Ref. 3570).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
De Vos, L., 1995. A systematic revision of the African Schilbeidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes). With an annotated bibliography. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Sci. Zool., 271:1-450. (Ref. 43912)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00710 - 0.01172), b=2.98 (2.91 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.09-0.94; tmax=6-7; assuming fec > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .