Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical, preferred ?; 8°N - 5°N
Africa: St. Paul River in Liberia up to the Pra in Ghana, including the rivers St. John, Farmington, Cess/Nipoué, Cavally, San Pedro, Sassandra, Boubo, Bandama, Agnébi, Comoé and Tano Rivers (Ref. 57127).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3570)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 1. Diagnosis: large species, up to 300 mm SL or more; anterior nostrils never closer to each other than the posterior ones; inner margin of pectoral-fin spine finely denticulate; 39-70 branched anal-fin rays; 8-15 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch; adipose fin always present (Ref. 57127).
Coloration: head and back dark brown; brownish lateral bands above and below lateral line, above and along anal-fin base, and along anal-fin margin; dorsal fin, pectorals and pelvics yellowish, the first two often mottled (Ref. 57127).
Feed mainly on terrestrial insects (Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera) washed into the water and on mayfly larvae (Ref. 6868). Oviparous, eggs are unguarded (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
De Vos, L., 1986. Schilbeidae. p. 36-53. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3570)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00400 - 0.01440), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.49 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming fec > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .